Application of the Cultural Landscapes of Chachapoya for Inscription on the World Heritage List
To further the goal of having the Kuélap Archaeological Complex inscribed on the World Heritage List, we discussed three options, including a single application for Kuélap remains, serial application for Chachapoyan archeological ruins, and application for the cultural landscape of Chachapoya. Through our surveys, we confirmed the existence of valuable cultural heritage, including many remains that have yet to be uncovered, a unique traditional agricultural landscape of Andes region developed in harmony with the natural conditions of the highlands more than 1,000 m altitude difference, landscape of settlements, natural landscape consisting of mountains, cliffs, caves, lakes, and rivers as a spiritual center for the people. Surveys have also clarified that each settlement has passed down a wide range of intangible cultural heritage such as traditional arts and religious events.
Based on the surveys, we held discussions with the Ministry of Culture of Peru and decided to narrow the strategy for application to the Cultural Landscape of Chachapoya because the area’s valuable cultural landscape falls under “associative cultural landscape,” with the characteristics of a “fossilized landscape” and a “continuing landscape.”
Cultural Heritage Management by Ecomuseum
Cultural landscapes of Chachapoya consist of remains scattered throughout the region, farmland and settlements peculiar to the Andes, and characteristic natural geography. In order to conserve and manage these cultural landscapes, which contain such a wide variety of living heritage properties, it is necessary to pass down both movable and intangible cultural heritage to ensure a complementary explanation of the value of the landscapes. To do so requires the involvement of communities in the region that will become bearers. Therefore, this project promoted resident participation in heritage management in the scheme of Community-Based Tourism (CBT) founded on the “Ecomuseum Concept,” which considers the entire region a museum without roofs to explain the heritage by theme. This project involved the establishment of council in each community, the deepening of resident understanding of the concept of Cultural Landscape, the ecomuseum, and CBT in addition to resident awareness for participation. While advancing these activities, we also transferred technical knowledge of a community-based heritage management plan to experts from the Ministry of Culture of Peru.