文化遺産国際協力コンソーシアム Japan Consortium for International Cooperation in Cultural Heritage JCIC-Heritage logo JCIC-Heritage

The Cultural Landscapes of Chachapoya Approaches through Resident-Participation Support for Inscription on the World Heritage List and Ecomuseum Development[on-site activities]

The Cultural Landscapes of Chachapoya Approaches through Resident-Participation Support for Inscription on the World Heritage List and Ecomuseum Development[on-site activities]

Japan International Cooperation Agency(JICA)

Peru

The Kuélap Archaeological Complex and the Areas around Utcubamba Valley

2013-2014 Masterplan,Human Resource Development,Awareness Raising and Promotional Activities
01/03/2015
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BACKGROUND

International Cooperation for Inscription of the Kuélap Archaeological Complex

Kuélap Archaeological Complex as a Site Held Sacred Place by the Chachapoya’s Culture

The culture of Chachapoya, a name that means “people living in the cloud forests” in Quechua language developed on the east side of the Andes in Utcubamba Valley, the source of the Amazon River. It flourished until the 15th century, the conquest by the Inca Empire after hard resistance. The Kuélap Archaeological Complex is situated at the top of a cliff approximately 3,000 m above sea level. The area has precipitous cliffs to the north, surrounded by stone walls measuring approximately 20 m high, and has only three narrow pathways granting access to the outer areas. The physical circumstances prompted the initial conclusion that the complex had been a fortress; however, recent archaeological surveys have revealed that it was a sacred place for the Chachapoyas culture built for over 1,000 years by people from a wide range of regional communities that were influenced by the culture.


Request for Technical Cooperation to Apply for Inscription of Kuélap Archaeological Complex on the World Heritage List

While Peru has recently achieved stable economic growth, it has serious internal problems such as poverty and disparity of income. In an attempt to reduce poverty in the underdeveloped northern areas, the Government of Peru planned the Northern Tourist Corridor of Peru and has advanced the Amazonas Rural Development Project with JICA ODA loan assistance. Amazonas is one of the main regions in the northern tourist corridor, and the major tourism resource in this area is the Kuélap Archaeological Complex. Called the 2nd Machu Picchu, the complex has great value as cultural heritage. The Ministry of Culture of Peru established the Kuélap Archaeological Complex Management Plan for conservation of the site in 2003, and placed the complex on the tentative list of World Heritage Sites in 2011.
Through discussions about inscription of the complex on the World Heritage List, regional communities have been involved in the conservation of cultural heritage and its use as a tourism resource; however, the Government of Peru has no experience in resident-autonomous activities for the preservation of cultural heritage and tourism development.
These circumstances prompted the Ministry of Culture of Peru to ask JICA for technical assistance, and JICA decided to conduct a project involving the Hokkaido University Center for Advanced Tourism Studies and the S&T Institute of Environmental Planning & Design, with Professor Yuji SEKI (National Museum of Ethnology) as an adviser.

Remains of shrines inside the Kuélap Archaeological Complex

Karajía remains of Chachapoya's culture

ACTIVITIES

World Heritage Registration Strategy and Approaches through Resident-Participation

Application of the Cultural Landscapes of Chachapoya for Inscription on the World Heritage List

To further the goal of having the Kuélap Archaeological Complex inscribed on the World Heritage List, we discussed three options, including a single application for Kuélap remains, serial application for Chachapoyan archeological ruins, and application for the cultural landscape of Chachapoya. Through our surveys, we confirmed the existence of valuable cultural heritage, including many remains that have yet to be uncovered, a unique traditional agricultural landscape of Andes region developed in harmony with the natural conditions of the highlands more than 1,000 m altitude difference, landscape of settlements, natural landscape consisting of mountains, cliffs, caves, lakes, and rivers as a spiritual center for the people. Surveys have also clarified that each settlement has passed down a wide range of intangible cultural heritage such as traditional arts and religious events.
Based on the surveys, we held discussions with the Ministry of Culture of Peru and decided to narrow the strategy for application to the Cultural Landscape of Chachapoya because the area’s valuable cultural landscape falls under “associative cultural landscape,” with the characteristics of a “fossilized landscape” and a “continuing landscape.”


Cultural Heritage Management by Ecomuseum

Cultural landscapes of Chachapoya consist of remains scattered throughout the region, farmland and settlements peculiar to the Andes, and characteristic natural geography. In order to conserve and manage these cultural landscapes, which contain such a wide variety of living heritage properties, it is necessary to pass down both movable and intangible cultural heritage to ensure a complementary explanation of the value of the landscapes. To do so requires the involvement of communities in the region that will become bearers. Therefore, this project promoted resident participation in heritage management in the scheme of Community-Based Tourism (CBT) founded on the “Ecomuseum Concept,” which considers the entire region a museum without roofs to explain the heritage by theme. This project involved the establishment of council in each community, the deepening of resident understanding of the concept of Cultural Landscape, the ecomuseum, and CBT in addition to resident awareness for participation. While advancing these activities, we also transferred technical knowledge of a community-based heritage management plan to experts from the Ministry of Culture of Peru.

Joint on-site survey with Peruvian archeologists

Introduction of intangible cultural heritage by residents

RESULTS

Future Issues in Cultural Landscape Management

Improvement of the Comprehensive Management Structure for Cultural Landscapes

The cultural landscape designation system in Peru has just been established under national law. Since the target areas for the cultural landscape are broad, it is necessary to implement a new system to ensure their protection as cultural heritage. Through this project, we held discussions with and provided explanations to the Ministry of Culture of Peru regarding heritage management methods involving cooperation with relevant authorities, and resident participation in reference to the Japanese system. In response, the Ministry of Culture of Peru held a seminar for personnel from authorities conserned at the end of the project period. Through this seminar, participants deepened their understanding of concerned parties with regard to strategies for world heritage applications and basic cultural heritage management policies based on the ecomuseum concept, and shared the importance of cooperation among related ministries and agencies as well as the participation of communities. In order to further promote the management of cultural landscapes, it is necessary to work on the establishment of specific systems with the aim of conserving diversified heritage and ensuring sustainable use for tourism.


Implementing Cultural Heritage Management through CBT and Expansion to Surrounding Areas

Residents increased their understanding of the ecomuseum and CBT concepts through council meetings in each community. It is important for each community to be involved in implementing management of cultural heritage and CBT activities. At the council meetings in the community, residents planned and introduced traditional woolen textiles and local cuisines in their traditional costumes. This showed us the potential for expansion of CBT in the future. It is expected that each community will recognize the remains, nature, living landscapes, movable and intangible heritage in their regions as their treasures, consider methods of protecting them, use them for tourism based on the CBT concept, and expand activities to all the areas around Utcubamba Valley.

Lake Cuchacuella, a sacred place

Textile produced with traditional weaving technique

Agricultural landscapes unique to the Andes

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